Misooma Oromiyaaf Lafaa fi Qabeenya Oromiyaa Bilisoomsu; Liberating the Land and Resources for the Development of Oromiyaa
Afaan Oromoo fi Afaan Englizi (Afaan Oromo and English translation follows)
Sabi tokko misoomuu fi duroomuun hafee yoo lafa, qabeenya fi dandeettii qabeenya sana gara misoomaa diinagdeetti masaku dandeessisu irratt too’annoo hin qabaanne itt fufee jiraachuu hin dandahu.
Wanti karoorri misoomaa dhimma baasu gaafatu 1) qabeenyi sabaa jiruu bilisummaan sosso’uu dandahu 2) jaarmaa sabaa jabaa ummata wiirtuu tolfate 3) hoggansa jaallatamaa fi abbaawummaan itt dhagahamu 4) jijjiiramaa dhaabaa hundee 5) gocha waloo jechuun, qabeenya sabaa, oguma namaa dabalatee dhimma itt bahuuf, qooda fudhannaa fi wareegama sabboonotaa
hunda qabeenya sabaa kan oguma namaa dabalatutt dhimma bahu
Akeki barruu kanaa adeemsa karoora misa diinagdee maljechisiisuuf yk fakmishoo/model tokko irratt yaada kennuuf utuu hin tahin lafaa fi qabeenyi hawaasa Oromoof maal jechuu akka tahe qoruu fi barbaachisummaa isaan, diina jalaa misa hawaasoma diinagdee fi aadaaf bilisoomsuu dubbachuufii.
Oromiyaan qabeenya uumaa hin tuqamin guddaa qabdi; laggeen jallisii fi humna kennuu fi dandahan hedduu; kuusaa albuudaa gatii qaban akka warqee, meetii, marble (balacco), fi kanneen biraa qabdii. Kanneen jiraachuun misoomaaf humna riphaa guddaa qabaachuu agarsiisa. Akkuma ummatoota biraa sabi Oromoos of ijaaranii lafa ofii misoomsuu caalaa wanti fedhan hin jiru. Garuu hamma qabeenya ofii too’atanii bu’aa ofiif dhimma itt bahuu dandahanitti sun tahuu hin dandahu.
Caasaa hawaasoma diingdee kan nagoomaa fi homishaawaa madisiisuu dandahu maddisiisu ijaaruun jaarmaa ilmoo namaa dhimma baasu feesisaa. Kunis darabee saa walqunnamtii atome hawaasa keesaa.argamsiisa. Diinagdeen alaa akka hin too’atamne hoggansi biyyaa ummata aangessuu qaba.Haala ammaa baruuf qofa utuun hin tahin akka abbaa biyyaatt mirga ofii shakaluu fi humna itt gochuuf Seenaa, malbulcha, mootummaa, hawaasquwi (sociolojii) fi malbulcha barsiifamuu qabu..Beekumsa dhabuun kun akka dhiibbaa alaaf sarmaa tahanii abbaawummaa gara saba sabi of oolchuu dhabuutt geessuu dandaha..
Yeroo namooti biyyaa qabeenya saanii irratt abbaa tahan aango argatu, aangoon snis deebi’ee hawaasicha keessa faca’aa..Haa tahu malee yaa’I abbummaa fi too’annaa kan shakalamu tahuuf hoggansa barsiisuuf, sosso’aa fi hawaasa hirkannoorraa irraa bilsoomsuuf jabaan dandamataa daaya fi dudhamaa tahe jiraachuu qaba.
Lafaa fi qabeenya bilisoomsuun maaliif baraachisa
Jaarraa 19faa gara dhumaa kahee Oromoon lola wal irraa hin cinne hadhaawaa koloneeffatoo Habashaa lafa qabatanii, ummaticha hacuucuu, itt roorrisuu, saamuu fi hundee buqqisuuf abbalaa ture waliin gaggeessaa ture. Haa tahu malee koloneeffatoon Habashaa ifaajjee qabsoo bilisummaa saba Oromoo hawwii saa badaatt milkaawuu hin dandeenye ture. Saba Oromoo gutummaatt too’achu hin dandeenye, fedhi aadaa, seenaa fi sirna Gadaa demkratawaa saanii diiguunis milkaawuu hin qabu. Lolli of oolchuuf dhalootaa dhaloota ummata Oromoo bilisummaa, nagaa, wayyaa’ina hawaasomaa, fi ulfina saba saaniifii kutataniin itt fufee jira.
Erga qabammi barbadeessaa tahe Minilik IIn tolfamee kaasee ummati keenya seenaa jannummaa fi ulfina ofii hidhataniin weerartuu of irraa lolataa turanii. Waraanoti qacceefixiisaa Oromiyaa irratt gaggeeffamaa jiran Oromoo akka hin jiraanne haxaawuu fi gochuufii. akka sabaa fi ummataatt hin jiraanne gochuun gonkuma lafa irraa balleessuuf karoorfatanii jiru.
Qabeenyi madda jireenya namaa fi bu’uurri hawaasomaa fi waatattaa isaan irratt hundaawa. Yeroo sabi tokko yaa’a misoomaa eegaluu waa’ee qabenyaa barbaachisuunii irrat beekumsa misa diinagdee waara argachuu dandeessisu argachuu qaba. Sabootu hundi dureessa haa tahu hiyyeessa, egeree diinagee saanii fromsa roga diinagee addunyaa waliin raajachuun waan jiru. Haa tahu malee karoora misoomaa yayyabanii egerreef hojii irra olchuun qabeenya saba ofii jiru heduu gaafata. Hariiroon malbulchaa fi diinagdeen mootummaa bucuu Abisiiniyaa gidduu jiruu fi itt fufaa jiu Oromoo wayyaba tahe gidduu jiru kan cunqursaa fi cunqurfamaa gidduutii. Aka seenaan mullisutt hariiroon kun guddina hawaasoma Oromoo fi diinagdee qofa utuu hin tahin hidda hawaasomaa fi aadaafis gufuu taha. Jaarraa 19faa Minilikiin weeraramuu fi qabamuu Oromiyaatii eegalee hanga hardhaatt qabeenyi Oromoo halagaan too’atamaa, saamamamaa fi barbadaawaa, Hawaasi Oromoo bu’aa qabeenya saan uumaa fi humna saa irraa ittisamee ture. Aburii statistiks akka agarsiisutt 68% GNPn Itophiyaa hoomisha qonnaa fi qabeenya Oromiyaa biraa irraa argama. Gaaga’ammi fi wareegammi dargaggoon keenya hardha lafa saanii qabaa fi olhantummaa halagaa jalaa baasuuf kaffalaa jiran itt cichoomaa dhiicha gara of jiraachisuutt godhamuf raga dha.
Hojiin qabeeenya too’annoo fi masaka dhaloota biyyaa seerawoo jala galchuun ofbara malbulchaa fi bu’uura diinagdee dhaloota biyyaa ballisuu gaafata. Kun aadaa saaniin hedhachiisuu fi weerara fi cunqursaa alaa itt dhufu jala dhaabbachuu akka danda’an sirriitt kakaasuu dabalata. Kan yeroo hundaa yaadatamuu qabu qabeenya uumaa too’achuun tarsiimoo misooma diinagdee qofa utuu hin tahin baraaramuu fi nageenya egereef carraa isa dhumaatii.
Lafaa fi qabeenya bilisoomsuu fi eeguuf tarkaanfii jalqabaa.
Utuu lafa hin bilisomsin misommi diinagdee hin dandahamu. Saboti yk hawaasoti ol kahaa jiran utuu moseensa hin jalqabin dura gurmeessa qabeenyaa karaa halleen qorachuu qabu. Tarkaanfiin jalqabaa qabeenyi jiru hundi (humna nama, waatattaa dheedhii, oguma fi iyyaati) qabaa akkaatt galuu mirkaneeffachuu dha. Gara Oromiyaatiin hundeen lafaa fi fi qabeenyaa bilisomsuu dandeettii itt hanan irratt hundaawa: a) gadi qabaa halgaa jalaa bilisummaa saba Oromoo baasuu gad jabeessuun, eenyummaa seenaa fi aadaan umata kakaasanii ijaaruu dha, b) Hariiroo hawaasa keessaa atomama qabu daga, kan hin taane fakkachuu fi addaan baastummaa irraa bilisa tahe gad dhaabu. c) ummata ballaa kaasaan rakkina jiruu maal akka tahe akka tokummaa, saba ijaaraa fi misooma akka jajjabeesuu barsiisu. d) durooma sabaa homishanii akka too’ataniifi eegumsa qabeenya saanii akka mirkaneessan, ummata barsiisanii humneessuu dha. e) humni biyya qabatee jiru, qabeenya Oromoo gara garaa akka hin bolqinee fi bakka biraatt hin dabarsine dhaabuu dha. f) gumii “Ambaa fi Ittisa Qabeenyaa fi Kunuunsa Oromiyaa balloo haammatu ijaaruun dha, Habashaan Oromiyaa qabattee yeroo mirga seeraan qabani fi hawwii hawaasa Oromoo hacuccu, ofi daangaa malee itt basha’aa jiraattu. Amma hariiroon kolonummaa yeroo itt raawwachu qabu.
Qabama Qacceefixii (duguugaa sanyii) gaggeeffama jiruu fi Imaammata Balleessa TPLF
Kufaatiin mootummaa Magistuu bara 1991 dararama sabootaaf kolonummaan Habashaa waan itt fufeef furmaata fiduu hin dandeenye. Addi Bilisummaa Tigray biciree bucuun empayerichaa golee kaabaa keessaa batee lafa ballaa dhaalmaan argate akka itt qabdu tarsiimoott galfachuu eegalte. Tarsimoon mummichi Oromiyaa garoota empayeraa hafan waliin qabachuu; akka mootummoota alaaf meeshaa tahanii tajaajilanitt tumsituu keessaa waliin ijaaruu; Oromoo fi mornoota lammoota biraan walitt naquu fi dhuma irratt korporeshinoota sabahedduu afeeranii yaa’a qabiyyee deggersiisuu.
Demokraasii fi charterii hedhataan qabatattee TPLF karaaa mimiccira malbulchaa, hirree lolataa fi ajjeechaa. buqqisa, cagada fi tuutaan hidhuun akka hamaatt hacuucuu fi deegsuu murteeffatee jira. Jane Curtz akka hubatetti, “Bantiin Afriikaa, Itophiyaan”. Tigreen murnoota wayyaba keessaa isee xiqqishuu 8% dilormichaa taatii. Tigree fi Amaarri aadaa Seemummaa kan qooddatan aadaaa fi malbulcha Ethiopiyaaf danaa kennanii jiru.. Tigreen Kiristaanummaa Itophiyaa qulqullummaa saan qabatanii jiru.2 Abjuu kolonummaa kana bakkaan gahachuuf TPLF waa maluu qaba: Kallachummaa empayera Itophiyaatt of jijjiiruuf maqaa tahu ummachuu qaba, of yoo “Adda Demokraatawaa Ummata Itophiyaa (EPRDF) jedhee moggaasu waluma faana “dhaaba ummatootaa demokraatawan” jechuu kan sabota addadaa irra babahan boojuu waranaa TPLF fi EPLF harka turan irraa ijaarrate. Malli kun hojii jalqabaa TPLF Oromiyaa, the Amhara, Afar, Hadiya, Sidama, Walayta, Kambata, Konsso fi Ogaden haleeluu gargaareen ture. Akka birkii qormaataa US Itophiyaa jiruutt; A Country Study (1993): Yeroo EPRDF Dhaba demokratawaa Ummata Oromoo fi Dhaaba Demokraatawaa Sochii Qondaalota Itophiyaalamaanuu 1990 keessa TPLFiin uumaman” tarsiimessoon Tigree tokkummaan murnoota kana dhuma irratt TPLF akka hundee saa Tigrayi gamatt ballifatu gargaaru dandaha jedhanii abdatanii turan. Eegalooti mootummicha gargaaruun abdatame garuu EPRDF, TPLF huccuu Amaaraa jalaa malee waan biraa miti jedhanii balaaleffatan”.3
Akka TPLF/EPRDF abbalutt injifannoon warana Itophiaa irratt argame kan saa qofa utuu hin tahin aangoti mootummaa Mangistuu kuffisan kan tuutota ummatootaa adda addaa keessaa babahan adda hundaa qabsaawanii. Jane Crtz mirkanii kana hubate, “Akkaata qonnaa wayyessuuf mootummich komunistii waldaa qoteebulaa ijaaruu eegale, garuu qotee bulaan akka diina waan godhan namatt himu malee kan dhaaba imaamata saanii diiguu isaan gargaaru miti jedhanii ciiga’an, qonnaan mootummaa fi gandi guutummaatt addaan cabee ummatooti gara jireenya barbaadaniitt shaffisaan sokkan.” 4
Caamsaa 1991 erga aangoo butee yeroo bitatee aangoo jabeeffachuun mootummaa TPLF uummachuu fi hidhata cehumsaa dhaabe. Duulli saanii gargaarsa dhaabota horoo fi mootummoota sagidduun doolara biliyoonaan lakkaawamannii jarjarsamaa dhufe.Jalqabumaa, TPLF kan dhaabame Gaanfa Afriikaa jeequu fi olaantmmaan gaggssuuf ture. Duris mootummoti saba bucuu Habashaa sochii bilisummaa Oromoo ukkaamsuuf anga’oota alaa irratt hirkachuun beekamaa ture. .Roguma sanaa irra bu’uun EPRDFis si’ana hagam mirga ilmo namaa irra haa eejjetu, ummatoota kibbaa irratt badiisas haa hojjetus mootummoota dhihaa irraa gargarsa guddaa argataa jira. Akkuma Mootummaan Cehumsaa Itophiyaa dhaabbateen Amerikaa fi Baakiin Addunyaa bulcha Mallas Zeenawiif gargaarsa hooriif irbuu seenaniif. Onkololessa 6.1992 Washington Post akka gabaasett, “United States gabaa dorgommee misoomsuuf f $161 wagga sadii irra hiree, akkuma Baankiin Addunyaa $kumkuma 750 diinagdee jalqabsiisuuf godhe.”. Kanatt dabalee dhaaboti horoo Addunyaa akaa $biliyoonii 1.2 akka gargaarsa diingdeett EPRDF Mallas Zenawii kennuuf lalabanii jiru. Washington Post Onkololessa 6 1992 akka gabaasett,”Liqeessitooti Lixaa irbuu Mallas demokraasii fi gabaa bilisaa fudhachuun Sadaasa keessa $biliyoona 1.2 hirdhina bajetaa kan guutu liqeessuufii dhaaf walii galan. Aka hangameessa sabgidduutt hammi saa guddaa tahuu baatus diddaa dur gargaarsaaf jiru cabsuu bakka bu’aa taha jedhan qondaaloti Lixaa.5
Akka qaama karoora ballaa ejjennoo EPRDF cimsanii Oromoo fi ummatoota koloneeffaman kibbaa horiin deggeggerruuf itt dhangalaasuun caalaa Dabalaa deeme. TPLF jalqabumaa Oromiyaa qabatanii qabeenya see guddichaa fi dureessa too’achuun gargaarsa alaa fi kalchituu keessaa malee akka hin dandahamne beeka.
Karoorri kolonummaan qabachuu kan Nugusa Leopold Beeljigii fi Ceci Rodessii Britania lafaa fi waatattaa dheedhii barbaacha jaarraa 19th keessaa kan anga’oota Awuropaan hedduu barbaachisu argachuuf tolfameen wal fakkaataa. Akkum sanaa koloneeffattuun gurguddoo Tigray afeerraa mootummoota alaa fi digaluu qeeyee kanneen saamicha guddifachuu fi bu’aa saamicha olhaantummaan argame walii qooduu malee namummaa fi lubbuu fi nageenya ummata empayerichaaf dantaa hin qabne gochaa jiru. Akkuma aangoo qabateen, TPLF lafti baadiyyaa fi magaalaa kan finnaati jechuun akka fedhett dhimma itt bahuu dandahus hime. Imaammati wajawajaa kiraayii lafaa kennaa lafaagurgurtaa kubbaaniyaa, hayyama abbummaa fi mirgi albuuda baasuu kubbaniyyoota qeeyee fi sagidduu diinagdee kolonummaa, malbulcha fi tooftaan lolataa isa jaarraa 19faa walfakummaa qabuu.6
Akkumaa kallachooti kolonummaa saboota Africaa hedduu of jala galchanii lafaa fi qabeenya saanii bu’aa ofiif gara ofii fi nambiyyoota biyyabiyyoota Awuropaaf jallisan, TPLF imaammata kolonummaa walfakkaataa Oromiyaa keessatt shaakalaa jira. Akkuma King Leopold III Beeljig Koongoo qabatee hacuuccaa kana hin jedhamne irraan gahe Mallas Zeenaawiin Tigray Oromiyaa qabatee waraana qacceefixii kan diinagdee Oromoo fi dhaabota saanii barbadeesse gaggeessuutt kahee. Warqee, buna, dhagaa marbil midhaan, hoomisha mukaa kkf. biyya ofii Tigraayiif qooduun, kan jarri Awuroopaa kolonoota saanii Asia, America Kibbaa fi Afrikaatt.gaggeessaniin garaagarummaa akka hin qabne ifaa dha. Waggoota digdamii torban darban keessa gochii TPLF/EPRDF fi kalchooti saa qabeenya Oromiyaa bolquun shaffisiisaa dabalee jira.Qabeenyota kana keessaa tokko tokko kan bakka hin buufamnee.
Maqaa qubsiisaan dhibbi kumumooti Habashaa lafa Oromoo fudhachuuf kibbatt gad yaa’aa jiru. Jalqabumaa qabiyyee sirnaawaa qubattootaan koloneeffachuu kan ture ammas magaalaa fi baadiyyaatt itt fufee jira,. gurguddoon Tigroota akkuma Afrikaanota adii Kibba kanneen sirna apartayid hoggananii jibba daangaa hin qabne sanyii irratt hundaawe fi imaammata tuutaa buqqisaa bakka bucuun wayyaba deegsistee akka feetett bulchituu isaan godhaa.
Yayyabi kolonummaa TPLF sirnumaan Oromoo irraa qabeenya saanii seerawaa irraa mulquu qofa utuu hin tahin dirii hawaasomaa saanii fi madda diinagdee dhabsiisuun dhaabbataatt Oromiyaa jalee Habasaa gochuu dabalata. Afeerraan kor[oreeshinoota sabgidduu fi “investerootaa” akka Oromiyaa keessatt hojetaniif kan TPLF qabeenya sabootaa fi sabaawotaa empayeritt keessa jiran saamuuf akka karoora waliigalaa qabu taliilessaa.
Badiisa humnaan Oromiyaa keessaa ari’amuu
Imaammati qacceefixii dilormaa Oromoo humnaan lafa akaakilee saanii irraa kaasuu qaama yaa’a fixiisa kan qaama, diingadee, fi aadaan Oromiyaa keessaa namoota magaalaa fi baadiyyaa kukumoota hundee buqqisuu dabalata. Waggoota 27 darbaniif lolota malbulcha, diingadee fi aadaa deggertoota kolonummaa saa di kalchoota keessaa tabalatee badii dandahame hunda Oromoo empayerittii keessa jiranitt raawatee jira. Jaarraa tokko oliif Habashaan bifa lafa Oromiyaa geeddaruuf Oromoo balleessuun geeddaree abbaa itt tahuun qubsiisaa fi ofiitt makuu miltolee saa kolonummaan deggeramee dhiibaa turee.. bara darban TPLF lafa dsaanii durdurii irraa Oromoo kukuma dirqiin kaasuun biyyichii dhuunfaa qubatootaa bakka lakkisee akka dhuunfaa qubattoota Habashaa tahu aggammatee ture. Hamilati Habashaa jaarraa 21th gocha qacceeffjixisaa fi lammii qulqulleessuu guddicha addunyaan argee hinbeeknett hedama.finfinnee fi naannaa seetii nammi kukuma lamaa ol tahan lafaa fi mana dhaloota darbe irraa dhalmaan itt darbe kaafamanii sanaan hawaasa qonnaan bulaa hedduutu sossosamee.
Maneen ji’aa yks “ye caraqaa beetooch” jeedhamee kan waamamuu kun, waabraa otuu hinta’in weerarsa lafaa bifa haaraan qindaa’ee saba saamuu fi dhabamsiisuuf akka deemaa jiru agarsiisa. Ji’att dhimma bahuun halkan mana ijaaruun kan mulisuu yoo jiraatee, dheebuu habashootni lafa Oromoof qaban addeesee agarsiisa. Hardha, qonaan bultootni Oromoo naannoo magaala Finfinnee jiraatan, miliyoonaan lafa dhalootaa isaani irraa buqqaa’ani giddiraa fi iyyummaa dangaa hin qabne keesatti galani jiru; lafaa fi qabeenyaan isaanis ifatti harka alagaan dhuunfatamee jira.
Maqaa Finfinnee guddifnaan Mater Planii duuba yaadi ture waan biraa utuu hin tahin danbalii duguggaa hedamee humnaan kaasuun ofii itt galanii magaalicha dhuunfachuu dha. Diree Dawaa, Gobba Baale, Shashamanne, Asoossa, Adamma fi magaalota guddataa jiran biraatt sagantaa qacceefiixii wal fakkaatu deemaa jira. Karoorri guddaan ummata buqqisuu kan yayyabame sernaan saba Oromoo dukkana jala dhoksanii finnaa ofii handhuura Oromiyaa keessatt ijaarrachuufii..Yakkamtooti kun roorroo hedduu, gola finnaa, ukkaamsa hamaa, fi qulqulleessa lammii Oromiyaa balloo fi saboota empayerittii biraa irratt raawatanii jiru. .
Waan Ta’uu Qabu
Wanti mummichi Habashaa fi Oromoon irratt wal dhabaa turanii fi itt fufaas jiru lafa, waan lafa keessaa bahu fi waatettaa dheedhii Oromiyaa keessatt argamu. Mirkanii kana irratt hundaawee furmaati tokkichi Oromoon qabu a) Lafa Oromoo jalaa diinaan hatame karaa dandahameen qubi tokko utuu hin hafin deeffachuu; b) qabeenya saamame hunda deebisiisuu c) qabeenya sabichaaf hedduu barbaachisaa tahan akka waatataa dheedhiif furtuu tahan aka bunaa, xaafii, atara soy fi midhaan nyaataa, misooma egeree fi guddina Oromiyaaf tooannoo, eegumsa fi gurmeessa gaalchaatt deebisuu. Bunii fi warqeen qabeenya Oromoo kan tahan dugugguruu empayera Itophiyaa qofa utuu hin tahin geeddara alaaf madda tokkichaa. Kolonummaan Itophiyaa Oromiyaa keessatt kan ijaarame humna lolataa fi qubsiisa halagaan tahu ummati Oromoo irraanfachuu hin qabu. Ummati Oromoo ittisa malee ajjeechaa, guraarama, buqqifama, fi haleellaa weerartuu Oromiyaa keessa gadi fagoo seenen sabichchi badiisaaf saaxilamee ture.saaxilamee. Ummati Oromo keessaayyuu dargaggoon kun hanga yoomiitt gaggeeffamun hayyamamu sirinyaan itt yaaduu qabuu.
Bilisummaan malbulchaa fi diinagdee gurmeessii fi too’annaa waliigalaa qabeenya sabaa akka fedhamutt diinagdee deebisanii sirriitt ijaaruun kan yaadamu mitii. Utuu misooma diingagdee fi guddinatt hin bobba’in dura tokkummaa akeekaan ka’anii ofii fi lafa bilisoomsuuf kan dandahamu hunda gochuu qabu. Lolli lafaa fi qabeenya sabichaa hatamee deebisiisuu tokkummaa ummataa fi warraaqsaa (diddaa noolaa) deemaa jiru baballisuuf kutannoo lafaa fi waan kan biyyatii qabateen fudhataman hunda deebisiisuu feesisaa.
Yeroo dargaggoon Oromoo ka’anii mirga sabummaa ofii gaafataa jiranii fi hedduun bilisummaa fi qabaa qaccefixaa tahe, saamicha lafaa, fi qabeenyaa TPLF raawwachiisuuf itt wareegamaa jiran kana callisuu fi dubbii “dabalamuu” dantaa dhabuu fi malbulchaan walxaxuun furmaata barbaachisuuf bakka hin qabanii. Dargaggoon Oromoo empayeratii keessatt laboobaa bilisummaa qabsiisan, ummatoota Itophiyaa keessa jiran, bulcha hamaa TPLF/EPRDF jalatt dararamaa jiraniif humna fakkeenya tahanii.
Hin raawwatin malee, injifannooleen hardha agarru dargaggoo kutatoo janna tahanii fi sabboonota jaalbiyyoota tahan kanneen wareegama guddaa baasanii fi ammas baasaa jiran irraa akka argame mamiin hin jiru. Addunyaatt akka qabsoo sabaawaan Oromoo qajeeltuu, kan mirga hiree sabummaa ofii ofiin murteeffachuu gaafatu tahuu agarsiisuu dandahanii jiru. Waggoota digdamii torban darbaniif TPLF kalchootaan deggeramee waan dandahame hundaan ummata keenya irratt diigamsa, tuutaan buqqisa, ajjeechaa kana hin jedhamne, raawwatee jira. Waraanoti qacceefixii tahan TPLF, tibba Naazii Awuroopaa keessaa, yeroo Waraana Addunyaa Lammaffaa kan Awuroopaa guutummaa barbadeesse Itophiyaa hardhaa keessatt calaqifamuun nama yaadachiisaa.
Tokkummaan humna! Injifannoon ummatoota cunqurfamaniif!
- Statistical Abstract, Ethiopia, A Survey of Yield and Production of Major Crops, 1988
- Jane Curtz, Ethiopia: The Roof of Africa. 199, pp. 6—27
- US Federal Research Division, Ethiopia, A Country Study, 1993 pp. 308-309
- Curtz, op.cit., p. 22
- The Washington Post, October 6, 1992
- See for example Robin Mckown, The Colonial Conquest of Africa, 1971
Liberating the Land and Resources for the Development of Oromiyaa
By Itana Gammada
A nation cannot survive, let alone develop and prosper, without having full control over its land, resources and the capacity to direct those resources towards economic development.
An effective development plan requires: 1) free mobility of available national resources; 2) a people-oriented and firmly secured national organization; 3) popular and responsible leadership; 4) fundamental institutional changes; 5) collective action, meaning participation and sacrifices by all Nationals, to be able to utilize national resources including human skills.
The objective of this paper is not to deﬁne the course of economic development plans or to suggest any model of development but to examine what land and resources mean to the Oromo society, and state the need to liberate them from alien control for their own socioeconomic and cultural development and social progress.
Oromiyaa has considerable natural resources that have yet to be tapped: numerous rivers for irrigation and power generation; various precious metal deposits such as gold, silver, marble, ores and other mineral deposits. The existence of these resources shows a high degree of development potential. Just like the people of any nation, there is nothing the Oromo desire more thane to organize their lives and develop their own land. But this will not occur until they take control of their own resources and make them benefit themselves.
Building an independent socioeconomic structure that can generate a healthy and productive life requires effective human organization. In turn, this will provide a means for a harmonious interaction within the society. To combat external economic control, the native leadership must empower the people. They should be educated in history, civics, government, sociology, and politics not only to understand the current state of affairs but also exercise and enforce their rights as indigenous people. It is clear that this lack of knowledge leaves one susceptible to foreign influence and an abandonment of responsibilities on the journey of national self-propagation.
When indigenous people take ownership of the production of their national resources, they are empowered, and that power is re-infused back into their society. However, for the process of ownership and control to be practical, a strong resilient leadership with a vision and conviction to educate, mobilize, and liberate the society from dependency must be present.
Why Liberation of Land and Resources is Important
Since the late 19th century, Oromos have been locked in a continuous and bitter fight against the Abyssinian colonial aggressors intending to occupy the Oromo land in order to brutally mistreat, suppress, exploit and dispose of its people indefinitely. However, the Abyssinian colonialists, in an effort to stifle the Oromo national freedom struggle, have never succeeded to fulfill their diabolical ambitions. They have not taken full control of the Oromo nation and their pursuit of the destruction of its culture, history, and Gadaa democratic system must not be successful. The fight for self-preservation has continued throughout generations of Oromo people determined to sacrifice for freedom, peace, social progress, and the dignity of their nation.
Ever since the barbaric occupation of Oromo land by Emperor Menelik II, our people have been fighting invaders, armed with their history of bravery and dignity. The ongoing genocide wars in Oromiyaa were designed to erase the Oromo nation from existence and to deny the Oromo people their survival, both as a people and a nation, setting them up for the eventual elimination from existence.
Resources are the only source of human survival and the basis of social and material development is based upon them. When a nation begins to engage in a development process, it requires the knowledge about the resources it needs to achieve longstanding economic development. It is also common to all nations, rich or poor, to try to forecast their economic future in relation to world-wide economic trends. However, to design a development plan and execute it for a viable future in which a constructive socioeconomic transformation can be realized, requires an assessment of the available resources of ones own nation. The political and economic relationship that has existed and continues to exist between Abyssinian (Ethiopian) minority regimes and the vast majority of Oromos (about half of Ethiopia’s total population) is that of the oppressor and the oppressed. As history reveals, this relationship does not only hamper Oromo social progress and economic development, but also threatens to destroy their social fabric and culture.
Beginning with the invasion and occupation of Oromiyaa in the late 19th century by the Abyssinian ruler, Emperor Menelik II, to the present, the wealth of the Oromo nation has been subjected to alien control- plundered and pillaged while depriving the Oromo society the beneﬁt of their own natural resources and labor. A statistical survey shows over sixty-eight percent of Ethiopia‘s GNP comes from agricultural production and other raw materials in Oromiyaa1. The great risks and sacriﬁces our young men and women are taking today to liberate their land from foreign occupation and domination are a living testament to the steadfastness of the march towards national self-actualization.
The task of bringing resources under indigenous and legitimate peoples’ control and direction requires raising political consciousness and broadening the economic power bases of members of the indigenous society. This includes arming them with their own culture and conducting effective agitation as a means to challenge external aggression and domination. It is always important to bear in mind that the control of national resources is not merely an economic development strategy, but the ultimate chance of survival and future security.
Primary Steps for Land and Resource Liberation and Protection
Economic development is not attainable without liberating the land. Emerging nations or societies must examine all aspects of resource management before embarking upon development. The primary step is to ensure that all the available resources (human capital, raw materials, skills and information) are channeled into a proper framework. In the case of Oromiyaa, some of the basis for land and resource liberation rests on the ability to: a) mobilize and organize the people on the bases of their history and cultural identity with an emphasis on liberation of the Oromo nation from colonial domination; b) establish harmonious relationships in the society, free of deception, hypocrisy and divisiveness, and to allow its members to fully participate in the entire process of resource control and allocation; c) educate the masses about the causes of existing problems, in order to invigorate a sense of unity, nation-building and development; d) educate and empower the people to produce and control the national wealth and to take on the task of ensuring the protection of their resources; e) take necessary steps to halt the extraction and transfer of various Oromiyaan resources by the occupying Abyssinian forces; e) organize an Oromiyaa-wide “Public & Resource Defense & Conservation Council.” Abyssinians have occupied Oromo land and plundered the wealth of the Oromo nation for so long, and have enjoyed privileges without limitations, while suppressing the legitimate rights and aspirations of the Oromo society. It is now time for this colonial relationship to come to an end.
The Ongoing Genocidal Occupation and Eradication Policy of TPLF
The collapse of Mengistu’s regime in 1991 did not bring any solution to the suffering nations and their compatriots in the empire due to the continuation of Abyssinian colonialism. The Tigray Peoples Liberation Front (TPLF), a tiny minority from the Northern core of the empire began to strategize on how to occupy the vast territory it inherited. The primary strategy was to: occupy Oromo land along with the entire empire; organize with internal collaborators to be used as tools for foreign governments; gain support of foreign governments; incite animosity among the Oromo and other ethnic groups; and finally, invite multi-national corporations to back-up the occupation process.
Under the guise of democracy and a coalition charter, the TPLF is determined to brutally suppress and dispossess the Oromo people via political maneuvers, military muscle and outright murder, eviction, massacres, and mass incarcerations. In “Ethiopia, the Roof of Africa,” Jane Curtz observes: “The Tigre is the smallest of the major groups, making up about 8 percent of the population. Tigre and Amhara people share a Semitic cultural heritage and together shaped Ethiopian culture and politics. The Tigre upheld Ethiopian Christianity in its purest form.”2 To fulﬁll this colonial dream, the TPLF had to craft a scheme: in order to transform itself into a vanguard of the Ethiopia empire, it had to create a suitable name, “Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front” (EPRDF), while simultaneously organizing a “peoples democratic organization” of different nationalities and prisoners of war, who are both under their captivity and the EPLF. This scheme provided the initial groundwork to help facilitate TPLF’s grand assault on Oromiyaa, the Amhara, Afar, Hadiya, Sidama, Walayta, Kambata, Konsso and the Ogaden. As noted by the US Federal Research Division in Ethiopia, A Country Study (1993): “In time, the EPRDF also included the Oromo Peoples’ Democratic Organization and Ethiopian Democratic Ofﬁcers Movement, both of which had been created by the TPLF in May 1990. Tigrean strategists hoped the uniﬁcation of these groups eventually would enable the TPLF to widen its base of support beyond Tigray. Elements in support of the government, however, denounced the EPRDF as nothing more than a TPLF organization in Amhara clothing.”3
Contrary to the TPLF/EPRDF attempts to solely claim victory over the Ethiopian army, the forces that brought about the downfall of Mengistu’s regime came mainly from the masses of the people struggling from all fronts. Jane Curtz notes this fact, “The communist regime started peasants’ association to help improve farming methods, but the peasants rejected them seeing them as an enemy who tells what to do rather than organization that would help them leading to the destruction of their policy, the state farms and the whole villages broke apart and the people quickly went back to the way they wanted.” 4
After the power grab in May 1991, the TPLF formed a transitional coalition government for the purpose of buying time to consolidate power and to create the TPLF government. Their campaign has been intensiﬁed with the help of billions of dollars from international ﬁnancial institutions and governments. Thus, from the onset, it was apparent that the TPLF was installed to destabilize and dominate the Horn of Africa. In the past, it was common for the Abyssinian minority regimes to rely on foreign powers for assistance to quell Oromo freedom movements. Consistent with that pattern, the EPRDF is still receiving substantial support from western governments in spite of its gross human rights violations and atrocities against the against peoples in the southern part of the empire. Right after the formation of the Transitional Government in Ethiopia, The World Bank and the United States government pledged financial support to Meles Zenawi’s regime. On October 6, 1992, The Washington Post reported that, “The United States recently agreed to spread $161 million over three years to develop competitive market…in line with a $750 million World Bank led initiative to jump-start, the economy.” In addition, western international ﬁnancial institutions have announced $1.2 billion in economic aid to the EPRDF, which is led by Meles Zenawi. The Washington Post of October 6, 1992 reported that, “The Western lenders also have taken a small gamble on Meles’ promises of democracy and free market, agreeing in November to lend Ethiopia $1.2 billion to cover its budget short fall. While the amount was not great by the international standards Western ofﬁcials said it represented a break from past refusal of aid to Ethiopia.” 5
As part of a wider plan to strengthen the position of the EPRDF in Ethiopia and to oppress Oromos and other colonized peoples in the South, political backing and the ﬂow of ﬁnancial help continue to increase. From the start, the TPLF knew that it was impossible to occupy the Oromiyaa, let alone control its immense and rich resources without outside support and local collaborators.
The TPLF colonial occupation plan is similar to the 19th century colonial undertaking by King Leopold of Belgium and Cecil Rhodes of Britain in Africa in search of land resources and raw materials which were very much needed for European colonial powers. Similarly, the Tigrayan colonial elites are now extending invitations to foreign governments (so-called investors), and local parasite business markets who have no regard for humanity, lives, and the well-being of the people in the empire other than maximizing the exploitation and sharing in the spoils of domination. Once it grabbed the state machinery, the TPLF declared rural and urban lands as state property and stated that it can use them as it pleases. The ongoing frenzy of policies of land lease, land concession, company sales, permissions to ownership and mining rights to local and international companies are similar to the colonial economic, political, and military tactics executed in early 19th century.6
Just as other colonial vanguards managed to bring many nations in Africa under European rule by diverting their land and resources to their own beneﬁt and the citizens of their home countries in Europe, the TPLF is now using an identical colonial policy in Oromiyaa. Just as King Leopold ll of Belgium occupied and subjected the Congo (now Zaire), to wanton devastation, Meles Zenawi of Tigray has set out to occupy the Oromo nation- waging genocidal war that is destroying Oromo economy and institutions. Obviously there is no difference between the siphoning-off of Oromiyaa’s gold, coffee, marble, food grain, wood products, etc., to Tigrai (the home of Abyssinians) and the actions of Europeans in their former colonies in Asia, South America and Africa. For the past 27 years, the activities of the TPLF (EPRDF) and its allies have sped up the pace of extracting resources from Oromiyaa. Some of these resources are irreplaceable.
Hundreds of millions of Abyssinian settlers are pouring southward, to takeover Oromo land in the name of resettlement programs. From the outset it was a systematic occupation through settler-colonialism that is still intensifying in Oromiyaa cities and urban areas. The Tigran elites are behaving identical to the White South Africans (Bauers) that were spearheading the apartheid system, an extreme hatred race-oriented and mass removal policy where the minority dispossesses the majority and rules at will.
The TPLF colonial design is not only to systematically dispossess the Oromos of their legitimate resources, but to also liquidate their social fabric and economic base of the society in order to turn Oromiyaa into a permanent Abyssinian domain. The orchestrated invitation of international corporations and “investors” to operate in Oromiyaa are clear indications of the TPLF’s master plan to appropriate the resources of nations and nationalities in the Empire.
The Tragedy of Forced Expulsion in Oromiyaa
The genocidal policy of forced removal of Oromo populations from their ancestral lands is an integral part of the extermination process that involved the physical, economic, and cultural uprooting of millions of people from both urban and rural lands in Oromiyaa. For the last 27 years, the TPLF, in its political, economic, and cultural war against Oromo people and supported by its colonial partners and internal collaborators, have used all available means of destruction against our people in the empire. For more than a century, the Abyssinians have been pushing hard to change Oromiyaa’s landscape by eradicating the Oromo population and thereby claiming ownership of Oromo land through forced removal, systematic re-settlements, and forced assimilation processes both in cities and rural communities throughout Oromiyaa. In the past, the TPLF has forced removal of tens of millions of Oromos from their ancient land in order to open space for Abyssinian settlers with the aim to change Oromiyaa into a settler’s domain. The Abyssinian genocidal project in the 21st century is considered to be the biggest act of genocide and ethnic cleansing the world has ever seen. These unprecedented large scale mass removals resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of people, as the sole purpose for Abyssinians was to repopulate vacated Oromo land with their own. In Finfinne and the areas surrounding, over two million people were forcibly removed from their ancestral land and homes which had been passed on to them from past generations, in which, millions of farming communities have been uprooted.
The so-called “ye charraqa beetoch” (the moon houses) is another new form of invasion to dispossess the Oromo people of their land and property in order to expand their landholdings in Oromiyaa as quickly as possible. The frenzied land grabbing in Oromiyaa – building houses in the moonlight is putting the Oromo people in a catastrophic situation. Today, the Oromo farmers who are living near and surrounding the city of Finfinnee are facing total extermination from their ancestral land, while the ownership of the land is openly shifted to the hands of occupying forces.
The real motive behind the Master Plan in the name of expanding Finfinne (Addis Ababa) is nothing but another calculated wave of extermination that was framed to forcibly remove Oromos from their historic and cradle land (Odaa Gulalee) in order to fill it in with Abyssinians (settlers) for the complete takeover of the city and its surrounding farming lands. Similar genocidal programs are taking place in and around the cities of Diree Dawaa, Gobba in Baale, Shashamanne, Asoossa, Adamma, and other growing cities. This grand scheme of population removal was designed to systematically eclipse the Oromo nation by uprooting the people then to establish their state in the heart of Oromiyaa. The perpetrators are responsible for innumerable atrocities, state terrorism, brutal repression, and for committing ethnic cleansing throughout Oromiyaa and other nations and nationalities across the Empire.
The Way Forward
The principal thing over which the Abyssinians and Oromo are fight, was and continues to be, the land, its byproducts, and raw materials that exist on Oromo land. Given this fact, the only solution available to the Oromos is to: a) make an exerted effort to recover every inch of Oromo land that has been stolen by the enemy by any means necessary; b) re-appropriate all looted wealth and resources of the nation ; c) strategically restore vital national resources and raw material products such as coffee, xaafii, soy beans and other important food rains to the control, protection, and proper management of the Oromo for future economic development and social progress. Coffee and gold, which are the wealth of the Oromo nation, are not only the backbone of the Ethiopian empire but are the only source of foreign currency earning commodities. The Oromo people should not forget that the Abyssinian colonialism was introduced and built in Oromiyaa by military means combined with planting settlers. But, the Oromo people remained defenseless and exposed to carnage, massacres, torture, displacement, and invader attacks deep into Oromiyaa that devastated the nation. The Oromo people as a whole, and the youth in particular, must think seriously about how long this will be allowed to continue.
Without political and economic freedom, the management and the total control of national resources, it is unthinkable to plan a reconstruction of an effective national economy, as desired. It requires having a unity of purpose to rise up and use every means necessary to liberate themselves and the land before embarking on national and economic development and growth. The fight to retrieve the stolen land and the wealth of the nation also requires the unity of the people and determination to intensify the ongoing revolution (civil disobedience) in order to liberate the land and return all that was taken by the occupying regimes.
At this time, silence, talks about to be “added up”, indifference, and political wrangling has no place in the solution equation, especially when Qeerroo or Oromo youth (Darggoota) rose up and demanded their national rights, are fallen martyrs for the sake of freedom and determined to make an end to TPLF’s genocidal occupation, land robbery, and resource plunder. The Oromo youth who ignited the flame of freedom throughout the empire, are an inspirational force for the people who are suffering under the most brutal regime of the TPLF/EPRDF in Ethiopia.
Though it is not yet completed, the victories which we see today undoubtedly came from those brave and determined Oromo youth and patriotic nationalists who have made and continue to make heavy sacrifices for the Oromo cause. They were able to show the world that the Oromo people’s national struggle is a just cause, seeking their inalienable right to self-determination. For the last 27 years, the TPLF’s genocidal regime with the help of their collaborators, has used all available means of destruction, mass uprootings, wanton massacres, and atrocities against our people. The TPLF genocidal wars in Oromiyaa are clearly a reminder of the Nazi period in Europe during the second World War which devastated the whole Europe as it clearly reflects in today’s Ethiopia.
Unity is power! Victory to the oppressed people!
- Statistical Abstract, Ethiopia, A Survey of Yield and Production of Major Crops, 1988
- Jane Curtz, Ethiopia: The Roof of Africa. 199, pp. 6—27
- US Federal Research Division, Ethiopia, A Country Study, 1993 pp. 308-309
- Curtz, op.cit., p. 22
- The Washington Post, October 6, 1992
- See for example Robin Mckown, The Colonial Conquest of Africa, 1971