Around the Horn: The Political Fallout of the Pandemic.

The Horn

(crisisgroup)—The Horn of Africa is in turmoil, from revolution in Sudan to the increasing regional reach of Somalia’s Al-Shabaab to the burgeoning political transformation in Ethiopia. In our new podcast series, Alan Boswell, Senior Analyst for South Sudan, and his guests delve behind the headlines and discuss ways to help bring peace and stability to the region.

Episode 15: Around the Horn: The Political Fallout of the Pandemic

We continue our COVID-19 series with a 360-degree view of perspectives on the pandemic’s impact. Five Crisis Group analysts look at the risks and opportunities in Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, and South Sudan, as well as the profound political and economic implications of the disease.

Click here to listen on Apple Podcasts or Spotify.

Episode 14: Sizing Up the Threat of COVID-19 in East Africa

COVID-19 poses an enormous threat in the Horn of Africa. Beyond deadly risks to public health and hospitals, democratic systems are already affected and critical diplomatic efforts disrupted. Outbreaks in camps housing refugees and other populations displaced by conflict could be catastrophic.

Kenyan diplomat Ambassador Mahboub Maalim joins Alan for this second special COVID-19 episode. They discuss the implications of the disease on vulnerable populations, the threat to multilateral institutions and the limits of virtual diplomacy.

Episode 13: Flattening the COVID-19 Curve in East Africa

The death and disruption wrought by the coronavirus pandemic has already been felt by much of the world. With the disease now making its way across East Africa, Alan Boswell sat down with journalist April Zhu to discuss the challenges the region faces.

Overstretched healthcare systems, the consequences of a global economic depression on stability, and the long-term geopolitical implications of China’s growing engagement are all covered in this first episode of a special COVID-19 series on The Horn.

Click here to listen on Apple Podcasts or Spotify.

For more information, see our recent briefing on the possible political effects of the contagion: COVID-19 and Conflict: Seven Trends to Watch.

Episode 12: The Dangers of Deadlock in the Nile Dam Talks

Ethiopia, Egypt and Sudan are struggling to reach agreement over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam.

Ethiopia, which sees the dam as a defining national development project, is ready to start filling it; Sudan, a historic ally of Egypt, covets the cheap electricity and expanded agricultural production that it promises; while Egypt remains deeply concerned about the impact it could have on the Nile’s water flow.

Harry Verhoeven, a leading academic expert on the issue, joins Alan this week to discuss the current impasse. They examine the technical issues, the politicisation of the dam, understandings of security and power, the role of the U.S. Treasury, and what the dam could contribute toward poverty reduction, environmental sustainability and agricultural productivity in the Nile Basin.

For more information, see our Commentary, Calming the Choppy Nile Dam Talks and our Report: Bridging the Gap in the Nile Waters Dispute

Episode 11: Will South Sudan’s Peace Deal Hold?

On 22 February, South Sudan’s two warring leaders, Salva Kiir and Riek Machar, agreed once again to form a unity government. After several failed attempts to make peace, this deal is more important than ever. In this episode, we flip the script by bringing Crisis Group’s Africa Program Director, Comfort Ero, into the studio to interview host Alan Boswell. Alan, who is Crisis Group’s senior analyst on South Sudan, has just returned from field research there. In this episode, Comfort and Alan discuss how we got to this point, what the unity government needs to succeed and what may hold it back, again.

Click here to listen on iTunes or Spotify.

For more information, see our statement: A Major Step Toward Ending South Sudan’s Civil War

Episode 10: Freeing Sudan from U.S. Sanctions

Sudan’s transition hangs in the balance.

As the country embarks on its journey to inclusive, democratic rule, one of the most pressing issues it faces is the flailing economy. The civilian-led administration inherits a legacy of decades of ruinous economic policies, exacerbated by crippling U.S. sanctions. Crisis Group has long called on the U.S. to rescind its outdated designation of Sudan as a State Sponsor of Terrorism (SST), which would be an important first step in supporting economic reform.

Cameron Hudson, Senior Fellow at Atlantic Council, joins Alan this week to shed light on the nature of U.S. sanctions, the factors obstructing the lifting of the SST, the role of the international community and the challenges for Prime Minister Hamdok.

Click here to listen on iTunes or Spotify.

For more information, see Cameron’s Foreign Policy article: The United States Should Lift Sanctions on Sudan.

Episode 9: Ethiopia’s Fragile Transition 

Ethiopia’s elections, scheduled for August, are set to be the first free and fair elections since 2005. But myriad challenges lie ahead, warns Will Davison, Crisis Group’s Senior Analyst for Ethiopia and Alan’s guest on The Horn this week.

When Ethiopia’s Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed came to power, he immediately marked himself as a departure from the country’s authoritarian past. He has opened up the country’s politics, embarked on a historic rapprochement with Eritrea, released more political prisoners and invited home exiled dissidents.

However, efforts to dismantle the country’s old order have sparked a debate between supporters and opponents of the country’s ethnic federalist system. Hostility among different regions has soared, ethno-nationalism is on the rise and intercommunal clashes have displaced millions. Concerns abound that intensified political competition around elections could further destabilise the state.

Tune in to hear all about the complex dynamics at play.

For more information, see our report Keeping Ethiopia’s Transition on the Rails.

Click here to listen on Apple Podcasts or Spotify.

Episode 8: East Africa in 2020 

From Sudan’s fragile transition and Ethiopia’s internal tensions to a resilient Al-Shabaab insurgency, 2020 is set to be an important year in the Horn of Africa.

Murithi Mutiga, Crisis Group’s Project Director for the region, joins Alan to discuss the conflicts and crises dominating the headlines and the ones evading them, from the Kenya-Somalia maritime dispute to the dramatic deterioration of Tanzania’s political environment.

Click here to listen on Apple Podcasts or Spotify.

Episode 7: How Women’s Support Energises Somalia’s Al-Shabaab

The Al-Shabaab insurgency remains a potent force in Somalia. One understudied source of its resilience is the support it enjoys among Somali women, despite the group’s patriarchal ethos, strict gender ideology and brutal methods.

Azadeh Moaveni, Crisis Group’s Senior Analyst for Gender, joins Alan to discuss women’s roles within the movement, from intelligence gathering, to fundraising, to arms carrying and to recruitment.

Click here to listen on Apple Podcasts or Spotify.

For more information, see our briefing: Women and Al-Shabaab’s Insurgency.

This episode was originally published on 28 June 2019. 

Episode 6: Kenya and Somalia Quarrel Over Offshore Oil

Kenya and Somalia are currently fighting a legal battle over their shared maritime border, an area rich in oil and gas.

Somalia’s President Mohammed Abdullahi “Farmajo” is playing hardball. With national elections approaching, he has taken a more assertive stance to demonstrate the country’s strength and appeal to his support base. Kenya views itself as a powerful country in a turbulent region and doesn’t wish to be seen caving into pressure from Somalia.

Rashid Abdi, Consultant and former Horn of Africa Director at Crisis Group, joins Alan this week to shed light on the deeply complex issue. They seek insights about why the dispute flared up, Ethiopia’s changing role under Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed and how mediation efforts have achieved some positive, modest success in de-escalating tensions.

Click here to listen on Apple Podcasts or Spotify.

Episode 5: Inside South Sudan’s Peace Talks

After five years of violent conflict, South Sudan’s main warring leaders, President Salva Kiir and his chief rival Riek Machar, signed a peace deal in September 2018. The agreement established a ceasefire and set out a political roadmap toward elections in 2022, which included the formation of a unity government. But the peace deal is imperilled, and with it the fragile ceasefire.

Emmily Koiti, a civil society activist who participated in the peace talks, joins Alan this week to discuss why she thinks the main parties will fail to form a functioning unity government, what the principle issues obstructing progress are and why the country’s current leaders do not represent the aspirations of the South Sudanese. She also described what it was like to be present at the negotiations, shedding light on how Sudan’s forceful mediation methods under Omar al-Bashir’s leadership achieved a peace deal but failed to push the warring parties together.

Click here to listen on Apple Podcasts or Spotify.

For more information, see our briefing: Déjà Vu: Preventing Another Collapse in South Sudan.

Episode 4: Trumpian Minimalism vs East African Realities

In theory, President Trump hoped that minimal engagement would bring big wins in the Horn of Africa: more U.S. trade & investment and seeing off his great power competitors. In practice, multiple surprises have forced U.S. policy into a mode of serial reaction. How are these priorities and realities different from those of his predecessors? And how has he dealt with themes that rarely feature in his usual doctrines, issues like governance, peace and security?

Alan Boswell drills down on U.S. Africa policy with Judd Devermont, Director of the Africa Program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies and formerly a senior official at the National Intelligence Council under the Obama Administration.They highlight the importance of multilateralism, democracy and governance in a tumultuous region, the incoherence of U.S. policy toward the rising competition between Gulf Arab states in this part of Africa, and the issues of using great power rivalry as a framework to dictate policy.

Click here to listen on Apple Podcasts or Spotify.

Episode 3: After Sudan’s Revolution with Reem Abbas

Sudan’s strongman Omar al-Bashir was swept from power in April after a 30-year dictatorship. A power sharing agreement was signed in August between the military and opposition alliance, which offers the best hope for the country as it transitions away from autocracy. However, the civilian-led government faces monumental challenges, among them a a deeply dysfunctional economy, political polarisation and a powerful security establishment bent on clinging onto power.

Reem Abbas, journalist, activist and researcher, joins Alan Boswell this week to discuss these dynamics and suggest ways forward that can improve the lives of the many millions of disempowered Sudanese who, for decades, have been reduced to dire living conditions, conflict and marginalisation.

Click here to listen on iTunes or Spotify.

Reem was a contributor to our recent report, Safeguarding Sudan’s Revolution.

Episode 2: On East Africa’s Digital Frontier 

Byte by byte, digital technologies are having a dramatic impact on politics. But while their influence in Western political spaces has been heavily scrutinised, their role in East Africa is only beginning to become widely discussed.

As Africa attracts greater foreign investment, countries in the Horn find themselves at the intersection of politics and technology. In Sudan, social media offered civilians a space to organise against and eventually oust the repressive regime of Omar al-Bashir. But in Kenya, politicians put big data to work. Long before the U.S. 2016 presidential election, the private data company Cambridge Analytica manipulated the Kenyan electoral discourse, operating with little accountability and stripping away the agency of ordinary people.

Nanjala Nyabola, who recently authored Digital Democracy, Analogue Politics: How the Internet Era is Transforming Kenya, joins Alan Boswell on The Horn this week. They discuss everything from digital colonialism and the exploitation of technology by state powers to the democratising potential of social media.

Click here to listen on iTunes or Spotify.

Episode 1: Red Sea Rising 

The Horn of Africa, long an arena of great power competition, today sees a new rivalry playing out on its shores. Gulf countries and Turkey are vying for allies, influence and physical presence in the Red Sea corridor. They are injecting resources, but also exporting rivalries in ways that could destabilise fragile politics in the region.

Alan Boswell is joined by Elizabeth Dickinson, our Senior Analyst for the Arabian Peninsula and formerly a reporter for publications like Foreign Policy and The Economist. On this week’s episode, they discuss the risks of Red Sea rivalries and also the opportunities.

Click here to listen on iTunes or Spotify.

For more information, see our report: Intra-Gulf Competition in Africa’s Horn: Lessening the Impact.

The Horn podcast series is produced by Maeve Frances.

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