Trump’s ‘ America first ‘ vow sparks fears for Africa initiatives
President could rethink crucial aid and trade programmes, policymakers warn
Donald Trump’s “America first” pledge could threaten Washington’s three biggest health and trade initiatives in Africa, US and African experts and politicians warn.
Concern focuses on three bipartisan programmes, backed by successive presidents, designed to help African countries deal with health emergencies, develop stronger economies and deepen democratic institutions, Chester Crocker, a former US assistant secretary of state for Africa in the Reagan administration, said.
“If you’re transactional, you’re going to . . . say, ‘What’s in it for us?’,” said Mr Crocker, referring to the America first policy.
Washington’s focus on security means it could also allow concern about Islamist insurgencies in north-east Nigeria, the Sahel and Horn of Africa to eclipse longer-term nation-building strategies, he added.
The three programmes seen as most at risk from the Trump administration are considered the pillars of Washington’s Africa policy.
The first, the African Growth and Opportunity Act, enacted under former president Bill Clinton, provides non-reciprocal tariff-free access for African goods from countries deemed to be improving the rule of law and human rights. According to Mr Crocker, “there might be a reflex to revisit Agoa” given that it allows African countries to access US markets without America receiving anything obvious in return.
There are also fears that any move to refocus resources on Americans could threaten the anti-Aids programme introduced by the administration of George W Bush. Formally known as the US President’s Emergency Plan for Aids Relief (Pepfar), it has provided billions of dollars for testing and treatment and is considered the biggest-ever health programme mounted against a single disease.
The third pillar is Barack Obama’s $7bn Power Africa fund, launched in 2013 with the aim of doubling access to electricity in sub-Saharan Africa. When it was announced, Mr Trump gave it anything but a ringing endorsement, tweeting: “Every penny of the $7bn going to Africa as per Obama will be stolen — corruption is rampant!” Its future could be jeopardised unless Mr Trump can be persuaded it means contracts for US engineering and power companies, said Mr Crocker.
“The anxiety for us is that, if he carries through on his domestication policies, Africa could be adversely affected,” added Mmusi Maimane, head of South Africa’s opposition Democratic Alliance. “What will happen to Pepfar and Agoa?”
Olusegun Obasanjo, former president of Nigeria, also expressed concern that Mr Trump might revisit some programmes, including Agoa. However, he said this would force the continent to stand on its own feet: “We should not allow things to fizzle out no matter what Trump does or doesn’t do.”
Witney Schneidman, deputy assistant secretary of state for Africa under Mr Clinton, is hopeful that Mr Trump can be persuaded that what is good for Africa is good for America. Like Mr Trump, neither presidents Clinton nor Bush knew much about Africa before they took office, he says, but both became more engaged as their presidencies progressed.
“The key question is how will Africa help America be great again? How does Africa fit into this?,” said Mr Schneidman, adding that studies showed trade with the continent supported 120,000 US jobs. Even if Mr Trump remained unconvinced, he said, “there is a legal architecture in place [underpinning the programmes] that’s been there for three administrations, which will not be easy to dismantle”.
Mr Trump’s early days in office are already sending ripples through the continent. His travel ban affects three African countries — Libya, Somalia and Sudan — prompting Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, president of the African Union, to lash out at the US for once taking African slaves but now barring its refugees. Mr Trump’s election meant “very turbulent times” ahead, she said.
The key question is how will Africa help America be great again? How does Africa fit into this? Witney Schneidman, former US deputy assistant secretary of state for Africa
Some also fear that Mr Trump’s inclination to question democratic processes, for instance by complaining about alleged voter fraud in the US presidential election and his seeming tolerance for strongman leaders such as Russia’s Vladimir Putin, could undermine Washington’s moral authority.
“African leaders may be less likely to look to American governance and human rights as something to be respected,” said Grant Harris, Mr Obama’s main adviser on Africa.
But Mr Obasanjo insisted Africans were strong enough to go it alone. “I have never really worried personally about Trump,” he said. “I believe the damage he can do to Africa is limited.”